La cabeza de Jano en la evolución del ius in bello interno y la cuestión del nuevo ius contra bellum internum

Klaus Kress

Resumen


Desde 1945, la mayoría de los conflictos armados tuvieron lugar entre Estados y rebeldes o entre grupos armados no estatales al interior de Estados frágiles o fallidos. En la actualidad, los dramas en Irak, Siria y en Ucrania nos muestran que la guerra civil es uno de los males más importantes de nuestro tiempo. Reconociendo este hecho, el Derecho del conflicto armado no internacional, en particular desde la primera mitad de los años 90, ha experimentado un desarrollo bastante tormentoso. Este desarrollo legal tiene dos caras como la cabeza de Jano: por un lado, está caracterizado por la humanización del Derecho de los conflictos armados no internacionales. Sin embargo, por otro lado, las reglas que gobiernan las conductas en hostilidades se han cristalizado, y su denominación como ‘humanitaria’ no deja de ser eufemística. Vale la pena preguntar si el desarrollo de la ley de conflictos armados no internacionales debe complementarse con un Derecho contra el conflicto armado no internacional. La controversia presente sobre una política legal acerca del privilegio del combatiente para guerreros no estatales debe desenvolverse bajo esta nueva luz.


Palabras clave


Desarrollo histórico del Derecho del conflicto armado no internacional, Asimilación del Derecho del conflicto armado no internacional al Derecho del conflicto armado no internacional, Derecho consuetudinario del conflicto armado

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18601/01210483.v38n104.06

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Publicado: 2017-12-12 15:51:55



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