La oportunidad en los delitos de violencia de género

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Juana Dolores Santana Hernández

Resumen

La oportunidad es uno de los elementos necesarios para que una persona cometa un delito. La mayoría de los estudios criminológicos sobre la oportunidad se centran en delitos de robo, tráfico de estupefacientes o delincuencia callejera, y son muy escasos los que estudian este aspecto de la criminología en los delitos de violencia que se cometen contra la propia familia o pareja íntima. En este trabajo nos propusimos explorar las características de la oportunidad en los casos en los cuales se cometen delitos de violencia de género y familiar. Para ello analizamos las sentencias del Tribunal Supremo de España sobre esta materia, comprendidas entre los años 2008 y 2018. Los datos revelan que en este tipo de delitos la oportunidad reviste una serie de características que la diferencia de otros delitos al producirse en un contexto donde hay, o se espera que haya, un clima de confianza, afecto y reciprocidad. En estos delitos, los agresores no solo aprovechan la oportunidad, sino que, a menudo, la preparan de antemano. Actúan en unos escenarios ocultos a la mirada de otras personas y al control social, lo que hace que sea muy difícil la prevención por parte de la víctima y de la sociedad.

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