Diplomacia económica: Aproximaciones conceptuales y su aplicación en la política de Xi Jinping hacia el Sur Global

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Resumen

La economía política internacional (EPI) se focaliza en precisar cómo las estructuras de intereses, poder y finanzas afectan las relaciones económicas entre Estados. Una corriente más reciente de esa literatura se ocupa de la diplomacia económica. El diferencial de este concepto radica en la utilización de instrumentos económicos para perseguir objetivos políticos. Desde finales de los noventa, y con mayor impulso a partir de la crisis de 2008, el ascenso económico y la proyección internacional de China están acompañados por una mayor disposición del uso de herramientas de diplomacia económica en función de objetivos internos y externos. La Iniciativa de la Franja y la Ruta (BRI) es un claro ejemplo de esta articulación, con especial incidencia en las regiones del Sur Global. Este estudio analiza los conceptos vinculados a diplomacia económica para luego profundizar en su articulación con la política exterior de Xi Jinping, y su proyección hacia el Sur Global. Concluye que Beijing intenta desarrollar y proyectar su poder económico a través del BRI, tanto en su periferia, como en el resto del globo. Asimismo, también responde a objetivos de naturaleza doméstica, vinculado a su proceso modernizador.

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