Cuarta revolución industrial: implicaciones en la seguridad internacional

Main Article Content


Esta investigación analiza las implicaciones de la cuarta revolución industrial en la seguridad internacional. Considera los impactos en conjunto de las tecnologías como una perspectiva multidimensional de la seguridad, la perspectiva expansiva de la seguridad y la innovación disruptiva. Se encuentra que las tecnologías amplían las capacidades actuales y crean otras nuevas para los actores tradicionales y no tradicionales. Así, la seguridad internacional se expande horizontalmente dado el surgimiento de amenazas que supone el ámbito digital en las dimensiones de la seguridad, y verticalmente al transformar las capacidades de los actores del sistema internacional.

Palabras clave:

Article Details


Creative Commons License
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0.


Abeliansky, A. L.; Martínez-Zarzoso, I. & Prettner, M. (2016). The impact of 3D printing on trade and fdi. Beiträge zur Jahrestagung des Vereins für Socialpolitik 2016: Demographischer Wandel - Session: International Trade and Development, No. A19-V1. Disponible en

Agrawal, A.; Gans, J. & Goldfarb, A. (2019) Prediction Machines: The Simple Economics of Artificial Intelligence. Boston, United States: Harvard Business Review Press.

Alturi, V.; Dietz, M. & Henke, N. (2017). Competing in a world of sectors without borders. McKinsey Quarterly, 3, 32-47.

Autor, D. H. (2014). Polanyi’s Paradox and the Shape of Employment Growth. nber Working Paper No. 20485. Disponible en

Autor, D. H. (2015). Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future of Workplace Automation. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(3), 3-30. doi: 10.1257/jep.29.3.3

Baldwin, D. A. (1997). The Concept of Security. Review of International Studies, 23, 5-26

Bjola, C. & Holmes, M. (2015). Digital Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. New York, United States: Routledge.

Bohannon, J. (2013). Why Are Some People So Smart? The Answer Could Spawn a Generation of Superbabies. Wired. Disponible en

Brooks, S. G. & Wohlforth, W. C. (2016). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers in the Twenty-first Century. International Security, 40(3), 7-53.

Browning, C. S. (2013). International Security: A Very Short Introduction. New York, United States: Oxford University Press.

Brynjolfsson, E. & McAfee, A. (2014). The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies. New York, United States: W. W. Norton & Company.

Brynjolfsson, E. & McAfee, A. (2015). ¿Correrán los humanos la misma suerte que los caballos? Foreign Affairs Latinoamérica, 15(4), 127-133.

Brynjolfsson, E. & McElheran, K. (2017). The Rapid Adoption of Data-Driven Decision-Making. American Economic Review, 106(5), 133-139. doi: 10.1257/aer.p20161016.

Burgess, J. P. (2012). The Societal Impact of Security Research. Peace Research Institute Oslo, PRIO Policiy Brief No. 09/2012. Disponible en

Buzan, B. (1983). People, States & Fear: The National Security Problem in International Relations. Boulder, United States: Lynne Reiner.

Buzan, B. & Lawson, G. (2015). The Global Transformation: History, Modernity and the Making of International Relations. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Buzan, B.; Weaver, O. & de Wilde, J. (1997). Security: A new framework for analysis. Boulder, United States: Lynne Rienner.

Cable, V. (1995). What is international economic security? International Affairs, 71(2), 305-324. doi: 10.2307/2623436.

Christensen Raynor, M. & McDonald, R. (2015). What is disruptive innovation? Harvard Business Review, 93(12), 44-53.

Chui, M.; Ganesan, V. & Patel, M. (2017). Taking the pulse of enterprise IoT. McKinsey & Company. Disponible en

Clapper, J. R. (09/02/2016). Worldwide Threat Assesment of the US Intelligence Community. Disponible en

Collins, A. (2007). Contemporary Security Studies. New York, United States: Oxford University Press.

Cronin, A. K. (2020). Power to the People: How Open Technological Innovation is Arming Tomorrow’s Terrorists. New York, United States: Oxford University Press.

Cummings, M. L.; Roff, H. M.; Cukier, K.; Parakilas, J. & Bryce, H. (2018). Artificial Intelligence and International Affairs, Chatham House Report. Disponible en

Danaher, J. (2016). The Threat of Algocracy: Reality, Resistance and Accommodation. Philosophy & Technology, 29(3), 245-268.

Deloitte University Press. (2017). Industry 4.0 and cybersecurity. Deloitte series on digital manufacturing. Disponible en

Department of Defense (DoD). (2016). Department of Defense Additive Manufacturing Roadmap. Final Report. Disponible en

Drezner, D. (2019). Technological change and international relations. International Relations, 33(2), 286-303. doi: 10.1177/0047117819834629.

Elvery, S. (2017). How algorithms make important government decisions — and how that affects you. ABC News. Disponible en

Executive Office of the President. (2016). Artificial Intelligence, Automation, and the Economy. Disponible en

Fantacci, R. & Marabissi, D. (2016). Cognitive Spectrum Sharing: An Enabling Wireless Communication Technology for a Wide Use of Smart Systems. Future Internet, 8(2), 23. doi: 10.3390/fi8020023.

Fey, M. (2017). 3D Printing and International Security. Peace Research Institute Frankfurt, PRIF Report No. 144.

Fraga, P.; Fernández, T. & Castedo, L. (2017). Towards the Internet of Smart Trains: A Review on Industrial IoT-Connected Railways. Sensors, 17(6), 1457. doi: 10.3390/s17061457.

Fraga-Lamas, P.; Fernández, T. M.; Suárez, M.; Castedo, L. & González, M. (2016). A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety. Sensors, 16(10), 1644. DOI: 10.3390/s16101644.

Franke, U. E. (2016). The Global Diffusion of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), or ‘Drones’. En Aaronson, M.; Aslam, W.; Dyson, T. & Rauxloh, R. (Eds.), Precision Strike Warfare and International Intervention: Strategic, Ethico-legal, and Decisional Implications. New York, United States: Routledge.

Frasson-Quenoz, F. (2014). Autores y teorías de relaciones internacionales: Una cartografía. Bogotá, Colombia: Universidad Externado de Colombia.

Frey, C. B. (2019). The Technology Trap: Capital, Labor, and Power in the Age of Automation. New Jersey, United States: Princeton University Press.

Frey, C. B. & Osborne, M. A. (2013). The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerization? Working Paper, Oxford Martin School, Oxford University. Disponible en

Garret, L. (2013). Biology’s Brave New World. Foreign Affairs, 92(6), 28-46.

Gershenfeld, N. (2013). Cómo hacer (casi) cualquier cosa: la revolución de la fabricación digital. Foreign Affairs Latinoamérica, 91(6), 140-152.

Gerstein, D. M. (2016a). How genetic editing became a national security threat. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Disponible en

Gerstein, D. M. (2016b). Can the bioweapons convention survive Crispr? Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Disponible en

Goodman, M. (2015). Los delitos del futuro. Barcelona, España: Ariel.

Greenberg, A. (2017). How an entire nation became Russia’s test lab for cyberwar. Wired. Disponible en

Greg, A. & Chan, T. (2017). Artificial Intelligence and National Security. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School. Disponible en

Hama, H. H. (2017). State Security, Societal Security, and Human Security. Jadavpur Journal of International Relations, 21(1), 1-19. doi: 10.1177/0973598417706591.

Harari, Y. N. (2016). Homo Deus: Breve historia del mañana. Bogotá, Colombia: Debate.

Hegre, H.; Oneal, J. R. y Russett, B. (2010). Trade does promote peace: new simultaneous estimates of the reciprocal effects of trade and conflict. Journal of Peace Research, 47(6), 763-774. doi: 10.1177/0022343310385995.

Herfst, S.; Schrawen, E. J. A.; Linster, M.; Chutinimitkul, S.; de Wit, E.; Munster, V. J., […] Fouchier, R. A. (2012). Airborne Transmission of Influenza A/H5N1 Virus Between Ferrets. Science, 336(6088), 1534-1541. doi: 10.1126/science.1213362.

Hooker, J. & Kim, T. W. (2019). Ethical Implications of the Fourth Industrial evolution for Business and Society. En Wasieleski, D. M. & Weber, J. (Eds.), Business Ethics (pp. 35-63). Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Publishing Limited. doi: 10.1108/S2514-175920190000003002.

Hurd, I. (1999). Legitimacy and Authority in International Politics. International Organization, 53(2), 379-408.

ING. (2017). 3D printing: a threat to global trade. Ing Economic and Financial Analysis. Disponible en

Jackson, M. O. & Nei, S. (2015). Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(50), 15277–15284. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1520970112.

Janssen, M. & Kuk, G. (2016). The challenges and limits of big data algorithms in technocratic governance. Government Information Quarterly, 33(3), 371-377. doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2016.08.011.

Johnson, J. (2019). Artificial intelligence & future warfare: implications for international security. Defense & Security Analysis, 35(2), 147-169. DOI: 10.1080/14751798.2019.1600800.

Kaplan, J. (2016). Artificial Intelligence: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York: Oxford University Press.

Khanna, P. (2014). Geotechnology and Global Change. Global Policy, 5(1), 54. doi: 10.1111/1758-5899.12117.

Kleinman, A. (23/05/2013). 3D printed bullets exist, and they are terrifyingly easy to make. The Huffington Post. Disponible en

Kosal, M. E. (2020). Disruptive and Game Changing Technologies in Modern Warfare. Switzerland: Springer Nature.

Kreps, S. E. (2016). Drones: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press.

Kroenig, M. & Volpe, T. (2015). 3-D Printing the Bomb? The Nuclear Nonproliferation Challenge. The Washington Quarterly, 38(3), 7-19. doi: 10.1080/0163660X.2015.1099022.

Ledford, H. (2010). Garage biotech: Life hackers. Nature, 437, 650-652. doi: 10.1038/467650a.

Lodgaard, S. (1991). Vertical and Horizontal Proliferation in the Middle East/Persian Gulf. Bulletin of Peace Proposals, 22(1), 3-10.

Makridakis, S. (2017). The forthcoming Artificial Intelligence (AI) revolution: Its impact on society and firms. Futures, 90, 46-60. doi: 10.1016/j.futures.2017.03.006.

Martin, P. y Tayer, T. (2008). Make Trade Not War? Review of Economic Studies, 75(3), 865-900. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-937X.2008.00492.x.

McAfee, A. & Brynjolfsson, E. (2016). Human Work in the Robotic Future. Foreign Affairs, 95(4), 139-150.

McCafferty, S. (2016). Military Robots: The Fighting Force of The Future. Monograph, School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, United States.

McKinsey Global Institute [mgi]. (2013). Disruptive technologies: Advances that will transform life, business, and the global economy. McKinsey & Company. Disponible en

Metzl, J. F. (2014). The Genetics Epidemic. Foreign Affairs. Disponible en

Mutimer, D. (2007). Critical Security Studies: A Schismatic History. En A. Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies (pp. 53-74). New York, United States: Oxford University Press.

Naím, M. (2016). El fin del poder. Bogotá, Colombia: Debate.

National Intelligence Council (nic). (2012). Alternative Wolrds: Global Trends 2030. Publication nic 2012-001.

Negahdaripour, M.; Nezafat, N.; Hajighahramani, N.; Rahmatabadi, S. S. & Ghasemi, Y. (2017). Investigating crispr-Cas systems in Clostridium Botulinum via bioinformatics tools. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 54, 355-373. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2017.06.027.

Nesadurai, H. E. S. (2004). Introduction: economic security, globalization and governance. The Pacific Review, 17(4), 459-484. doi: 10.1080/0951274042000326023.

New America Foundation. (2017). 5. Non-State Actors with Drone Capabilities. World of Drones in-depth report. Disponible en

Oh, H.; Kim, S.; Shin, H-S.; Tsourdos, A. & White, B. A. (2014). Behaviour recognition of ground vehicle using airborne monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicles. International Journal of Systems Science, 45(12), 2499-2514. doi: 10.1080/00207721.2013.772677.

Patterson, D. R. (2017). Defeating the threat of small unmanned aerial systems. Air & Space Power Journal, 31(1), 15-25.

Price Waterhouse Coopers [pwc]. (2018). A drone’s eye view. PWC-Agoria Report. Recuperado de:

Purdy, M. & Daugherty, P. (2017). Why Artificial Intelligence is the Future of Growth. Accenture Report. Disponible en

Puyvelde, D. V.; Coulthart, S. & Hossain, M. S. (2017). Beyond the buzzword: big data and national security decision-making. International Affairs, 93(6), 1397-1416. doi: 10.1093/ia/iix184.

Raytheon. (2015). To print a missile. Raytheon Company. Disponible en

Rid, T. (2013). Cyberwar and Peace: Hacking Can Reduce Real-World Violence. Foreign Affairs, 92(6), 77-87.

Robertson, A. (2013). A 3D-printed gun can still explode but making an AK-47 is easier than you think. The Verge. Disponible en

Romer, P. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 71-102.

Rothschild, E. (1995). What is Security? Daedalus, 124(3), 53-98.

Rotman, D. (2017). The Relentless Pace of Automation. MIT Technology Review, 120(2), 92-95.

Saidu, C. I.; Usman A, S. & Ogedebe, P. (2015). Internet of Things: Impact on Economy. British Journal of Mathematics & Computer Science, 7(4), 241-251. doi: 10.9734/BJMCS/2015/14742.

Scharre, P. (2018). Army of none: autonomous weapons and the future of war. New York, United States: W. W. Norton & Company.

Schwab, K. (2016). The Fourth Industrial Revolution. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum.

Simmons, D. (2008). Genetic inequality: Human genetic engineering. Nature Education, 1(1), 173.

Singer, P. W. (2009). Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century. New York, United States: Penguin Group.

Smith, A. (2016). Technology and International Security. En Noonan, N. C. & V. Nadkami (eds.), Challenge and Change: Global Threats and the State in Twenty-first Century International Politics (pp. 165-193). New York, United States: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Tinnirello, M. (2018). Offensive Realism and the Insecure Structure of the International System: Artificial Intelligence and Global Hegemony. En Yampolsky, R. V. (Ed.), Artificial Intelligence Safety and Security (pp. 339-356). Boca Raton, United States: CRC Press- Taylor & Francis Group.

Walther, G. (2015). Printing Insecurity? The Security Implications of 3D-Printing of Weapons. Science and Engineering Ethics, 21(6), 1435-1445. doi: 10.1007/s11948-014-9617-x.

Ward, A. (2017). Guess who has drones now? isis. Vox. Disponible en

Watson, P. (2017). Convergencias. Bogotá, Colombia: Crítica.

Weaver, O. (1995). Securitization and Desecuritization. En Lipschutz, R. D. (Ed.), On Security (pp. 46-87). New York, United States: Columbia University Press.

Wein, L. M. & Liu, Y. (2005). Analyzing a bioterror attack on the food supply: The case of botulinum toxin in milk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(28), 9984-9989. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0408526102.

Weiss, C. (2015). How Do Science and Technology Affect International Affairs? Minerva, 53(4), 411-430.

World Trade Organization (wto). (2013). World Trade Report 2013: Factors shaping the future of world trade. Geneve, Switzerland: World Trade Organization.

Wu, J.; Ota, K.; Dong, M. & Li, C. (2016). A Hierarchical Security Framework for Defending Against Sophisticated Attacks on Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Cities. ieee Access, 4, 416-424. doi: 10.1109/access.2016.2517321.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.