Una comparativa de los esquemas de ciberseguridad de China y Estados Unidos

Main Article Content


German Alejandro Patino Orozco


Este artículo aporta algunas consideraciones sobre el debate acerca de la relevancia de la ciberseguridad como herramienta en la competencia internacional. El argumento central sostiene que las acciones en el campo de ciberseguridad representan una pieza clave en el marco de las relaciones competitivas de carácter gubernamental. A través del ejercicio de comparar el modelo de ciberseguridad chino y estadounidense se sostiene que este terreno se ha convertido en un imperativo de seguridad nacional para ambos países. Asimismo, propone la adopción de una forma comparativa integral para esquemas de ciberseguridad gubernamental. El artículo concluye con algunos tópicos para profundizar en el análisis de ciberseguridad bajo una perspectiva internacional.

Palabras clave:

Article Details


Creative Commons License
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0.


Jakarta Globe: http://jakartaglobe.id/international/xi-offers-visionchina-driven-asia-pacific-dream/

DeLisle, J. & Goldstein, A. (2017). China’s Global Engagement: Cooperation, Competition and Influence in the 21st Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

Deibert, R. (2011). Tracking the Emerging Arms Race in Cyberspace. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists.

Deibert, R. J. (2013). Black Code: Surveillance, Privacy, and the Dark Side of the Internet. Toronto: Mc-Clelland & Stewart.

Deibert, R. J. & Rohozinsky, R. (2010). Liberation vs Control in Cyberspace. Journal of Democracy, 21(4), 43-57.

Dobbins, J. (2012). War with China. Survival, 54(4), 7-24.

Escobar, A. (06/1994). Welcome to cyberia: notes on the anthology of cyberculture. Current Anthropology, 35(3), 211-231.

Friedberg, A. L. (2011). A Contest for Supremacy: China, America and the Struggle for Mastery in Asia. Nueva York: W.W. Norton.

Gady, F.-S. (28/01/2016). What Does 2016 Hold for U.S.-China Relations in Cyberspace? Retrieved noviembre 15, 2018 from China-US Focus: https://www.chinausfocus.com/peace-security/what-does-the-year-2016-hold-for-china-u-srelations-in-cyberspace/

Goldstein, L. J. (2015). Meeting China Halfway. How to Defuse the Emerging U.S.-China Rivalry. Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Guimón, P. (15/05/2019). Trump blinda las telecomunicaciones de EE. UU. contra Huawei en una nueva ofensiva contra China. Retrieved mayo 16, 2019 from El País: https://elpais.com/internacional/2019/05/15/estados_unidos/1557957202_172429.html

Helleiner, E. & Kirshner, J. (2014). The Great Wall of Money: Power and Politics in China’s International Monetary Relations. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Jacques, M. (2009). When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order. Nueva York: Penguin.

Johnston, A. I. (2013). How New and Assertive is China’s New Assertiveness? International Security, 37(4), 7-48.

Klimburg, A. (2017). The Darkening Web: The War for Cyberspace. New York: Penguin Press.

Kaplan, F. (2016). Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War. Nueva York: Simon & Schuster.

Kirshner, J. (2010). The Tragedy of Offensive Realism: Classical Realism and the Rise of China. European Journal of International Relations, 18(1), 53-75.

Knight, W. (13/02/2019). Claves para entender por qué ee.uu. teme que Huawei domine el 5G. Retrieved mayo 21, 2019 from MIT Technology Review: https://www.technologyreview.es/s/10935/claves-para-entender-por-que-ee-uu-teme-quehuawei-domine-el-5g?fbclid=IwAR0_jtOi_pIlz09ivuyKqBWpBeIl8KsvvIkHZFvyIP51o-311fV8rd9vwe0Q

Kramer, F. D., Starr, S. H., Wentz, L. K. & (eds.). (2009). Cyberpower and National Security. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.

Krauthamer, C. (31/07/1995). Why We Must Contain China. Time.

Kupchan, C. (2012). No One’s World: the West, the Rising Rest, and the Coming Global Turn. New York: Oxford University Press.

Layne, C. (2009). The Unipolar Illusion Revisited: The Coming End of the United States’ Unipolar Moment. International Security, 34(1), 147-172.

Legro, J. W. (2000). Whence American Internationalism. International Organization, 54(2), 253-289.

Lewis, J. A. (30/11/2018). Technologial Competition and China. Retrieved enero 22, 2019 from Center for Strategic & International Studies: https://www.csis.org/analysis/technological-competition-andchina

Li, Z. (16/01/2016). Different Values but Similar Visions for Cyberspace. Retrieved enero 17, 2016 from China-US Focus: https://www.chinausfocus.com/peace-security/different-values-but-similarvisions-for-cyberspace

Lieberthal, K. & Wang, J. (2012). Addressing U.S.-China Strategic Distrust. Washington, Beijing: John L. Thornton China Center, Beijing University Center for International and Strategic Studies.

Lu, C. (29/12/2017). China-US Cyberspace Relations in the Trump Era. Retrieved diciembre 29, 2018 from China-US Focus: https://www.chinausfocus.com/peace-security/china-us-cyberspacerelations-in-the-trump-era

Maness, R. C., Valeriano, B. & Jensen, B. (2017). The Dyadic Cyber Incident and Dispute Dataset. Retrieved julio 8, 2019 from http://www.brandonvaleriano.com/uploads/8/1/7/3/81735138/dcid_1.5_codebook.pdf

Miller, T. (2017). China’s Asian Dream. Londres: Zed Books.

Morales, D. (2018). Ciclos políticos hegemónicos: implicaciones para la gobernanza internacional. Brazilian Journal of International Relations, 7(3),452-493.

Morgenthau, H. J. (1948). Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: McGraw Hill.

Muñoz, R. (20/05/2019). Google rompe con Huawei, cuyos móviles se quedarían sin sus ‘apps’ y actualizaciones. Retrieved mayo 20, 2019 from El País: https://elpais.com/economia/2019/05/19/actualidad/1558294622_546268.html

Pillsbury, M. (2015). The Hundred Year Marathon: China’s Secret Strategy to Replace America’s as the Global Superpower. Nueva York: Henry Holt. Rachman, G. (1996). Containing China. Washington Quarterly, 19(1), 129-140.

Rovner, J. & Moore, T. (2017). Does the Internet Need a Hegemon? Journal of Global Security Studies, 2(3), 184-203.

Sanger, D. E., Barnes, J. E., Zhong, R. & Santora, M. (26/01/2019). In 5G Race with China, U.S. Pushes Allies to Fight Huawei. Retrieved enero 28, 2019 from The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/26/us/politics/huaweichina-us-5g-technology.html

Segal, A. (2018). When China Rules the Web: Technology in the Service of the State. Foreign Affairs, 97(5), 10-18.

Shambaugh, D. (2013). China Goes Global. The Partial Power. Nueva York: Columbia University Press.

Singer, P. W. & Friedman, A. (2014). Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

South China Morning Post; Abacus; Edith Yeung. (2019). China Internet Report 2019. Hong Kong: South China Morning Post.

Steinfeld, E. S. (2017). Teams of Rivals: China, the United States, and the Race to Develop Technologies for a Sustainable Future. In J. deLisle, & A. Goldstein, China’s Global Engagement: Cooperation, Competition, and Influence in the 21st Century (pp. 91-121). Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

Toca, G. (10/04/2019). 5G: la otra cara de la guerra digital. Retrieved abril 11, 2019 from Esglobal: https://www.esglobal.org/5g-la-otra-cara-de-la-guerradigital/?utm_campaign=shareaholic&utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=socialnetwork

U.S. Cyber Command. (04/2018). Achieve and Maintain Cyberspace Superiority. Command Vision for US Cyber Command. Retrieved enero 23, 2019 from U.S. Cyber Command: https://www.cybercom.mil/Portals/56/Documents/UScybercom%20Vision%20April%202018.pdf?ver=2018-06-14-152556-010

U.S. Cyber Command. (04/2018a). Achieve and Maintain Cyberspace Superiority. Command Vision for US Cyber Command. Retrieved enero 23, 2019 from U.S. Cyber Command: https://www.cybercom.mil/Portals/56/Documents/UScybercom%20Vision%20April%202018.pdf?ver=2018-06-14-152556-010

U.S. Government White House. (09/2018). National Cyber Strategy of the United States of America. Retrieved enero 23, 2019 from U.S. Government White House: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/National-Cyber-Strategy.pdf

Valeriano, B., Jensen, B. & Maness, R. C. (2019). Cyber Strategy: The Evolving Character of Power and Coercion. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

Vida Liy, M. & Mars, A. (21/05/2019). Donald Trum da una tregua de tres meses para imponer el veto a Huawei. Retrieved mayo 21, 2019 from El País: https://elpais.com/economia/2019/05/21/actualidad/1558417928_415258.html

Xi, J. (2014). The Governance of China. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Yuan, L. (03/10/2018). Private Businesses Built Modern China. Now Gov’t Is Pushing Back. Retrieved mayo 21, 2019 from The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/03/business/chinaeconomy-private-enterprise.html

Zuboff, S. (2019). The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future a the New Frontier Power. New Yok: Public Affairs.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a